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Gum disease or why your gums are inflamed

Gum disease is inflammation of the gum tissue that can spread to the bone that surrounds and supports a tooth. The three stages of gum disease, from the least severe to the most severe, include: gingivitis,periodontitis, and complicated periodontitis.

Signs and symptoms

Gum disease can be painless, so you need to consider the following possible symptoms:

1. Swelling (swelling), redness, or tenderness of the gums

2. Descent or separation of the gum from the tooth

3. Persistent bad breath or bad taste in the mouth

4. Looseness (mobility) of teeth

5. Changes in teeth closing

6. Shifting partial dentures

7. Visible pus on the tissues surrounding the teeth and gums

8. Sharp or dull pain when chewing

9. Reaction of the upper teeth to cold or hot


Plaque bacteria, which is a sticky, colorless film that constantly builds up on a tooth, causes gum disease. If plaque is not removed, it can harden and turn into tartar. In addition, plaque will continue to form on tartar. Tartar cannot be removed with a toothbrush or floss, as this requires a professional dental hygiene procedure by a dentist or hygienist.


If plaque is not removed by brushing and flossing, it can turn into tartar, which is an uneven and resistant build-up that further builds up plaque. Plaque bacteria can cause infection of the gums and teeth, ultimately damaging the gums and bone that supports the tooth. There are three stages of gum disease:

Gingivitis — This condition represents the early stage of gum disease. It is accompanied by gum disease, which is caused by plaque buildup on the gum line. In this case, there is redness or swelling of the gums or bleeding when brushing and flossing teeth. Early on, gum disease can be cured because there is no damage to the bone or connective tissue that holds the tooth in place.

Periodontitis — During this stage, irreversible damage to the surrounding bone tissue and fibers that hold the tooth in place occurs. Below the gum line, a gum pocket begins to form, which contributes to the deepening and spread of plaque to the area below the gum line. Specialized periodontal treatment and improved personal oral hygiene can usually prevent further damage to the gum tissue, as well as the periodontal ligaments and bone.
Complicated periodontitis — In this advanced stage of gum disease, the connective fibers and bone of the jaw are destroyed, which can lead to tooth mobility. This, in turn, can lead to a change in the bite, as well as the possibility of eating and speech disorders. In the event that intensive periodontal treatment does not allow the tooth to be preserved, the dentist can remove it. The dentist should offer the patient a choice of prosthetic options for tooth extraction due to the development of periodontitis.


Properly brushing and flossing your teeth can go a long way towards reducing your risk of gum disease. An antibacterial toothpaste or mouthwash will kill bacteria and reduce plaque in your mouth. Removing plaque plays an important role in preventing gum disease and improving oral health.


Professional oral hygiene performed by a dentist or hygienist is the only way to remove plaque that has hardened and turned into tartar. Visiting a doctor for a preventive examination twice a year allows you to cure the disease at an early stage before it becomes more serious.

In advanced stages of gum disease, a scaling and root straightening procedure may be required to eliminate affected periodontal pockets and gum infections. The oral hygienist uses an ultrasonic scaling device to remove plaque, tartar, and food debris from above and below the gum line, and hand-brush to smooth tooth and root surfaces. Sometimes laser therapy is also given to remove tartar deposits. If the depth of the periodontal pockets reaches more than 5 millimeters, and in this case, moderate or complicated periodontitis is observed, the periodontologist can perform surgical removal of the gingival flap in order to reduce the periodontal pocket, as well as a bone graft operation to restore the lost bone mass.


08 september 2020, 18:51

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