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Types of Bites

There are correct and incorrect bites. And the difference is not so much in aesthetics, as in the functionality of the dentoalveolar system. If it is disturbed, then we are talking about pathological types of bite, in which orthodontic treatment is a necessity.


There are a number of objective parameters that can be used to determine the correct, or physiological, bite:

  • when closing, the teeth of the upper jaw make contact with the lower teeth of the same name. The ideal bite is when the upper incisors overlap the lower teeth by 1/3,
  • clear contact of the teeth of the masticatory group: molars and premolars,
  • no interdental spaces,
  • vertical axis of facial symmetry exactly passes between the central incisors,
  • no problems with diction, chewing and swallowing.

All bite types in dentistry are divided into abnormal and physiological, and within these groups there is a more detailed classification.


Consider the physiological bite types and their features:

  • orthognathic bite – the ideal, in which there is the same overlap of 1/3, which was mentioned above;
  • direct – no overlap as in the previous variant: the upper and lower incisors are in contact with the incisal edges. This increases the risk of tooth wear, but in terms of orthodontics this case belongs to the types of correct bite;
  • biprognathic – all the incisors are slightly inclined towards the lips, the dental rows are moved forward, but there is no violation of occlusion;
  • progenic – the lower jaw is slightly advanced. Closure is tight.

These types of bite teeth do not affect either the aesthetics or functionality, and therefore are considered normal.


A bite is considered malocclusion when there are abnormalities in the location of the teeth and abnormalities in occlusion that affect the function of the jaw system. All types of malocclusions, to a greater or lesser degree, lead to destruction and loss of teeth, TMJ (temporomandibular joint) disorders, and facial asymmetry. The consequences of an abnormal bite are discussed in more detail below. Orthodontic treatment in this case is necessary not so much for aesthetics, but to preserve health.


There are the following types of malocclusions in adults:

  • Distal bite – the upper jaw protrudes forward. The upper incisors can be tilted forward toward the lips or backward into the mouth. Often, there is no contact between the front teeth of the upper jaw and the lower jaw, resulting in a sagittal gap and dysocclusion (lack of closure). This type of bite on the teeth is visually manifested by a slanted profile and the upper lip overhanging the lower lip, and a «second chin» may be formed;
  • Mesial bite – the lower jaw protrudes forward. Here, there may also be a sagittal gap and no occlusion, or there may be only a slight overlap of the upper teeth with the lower teeth. The outward signs of a mesial bite are a protruded lower jaw and massive chin; the lower lip is usually enlarged;
  • A deep bite – the lower incisors are hidden by the upper incisors by 50% or more. Depending on the stage, a deep bite in adults may completely lack occlusion and develop inflammation of the tissues of the upper palate due to trauma from the lower teeth. With a deep bite, the so-called gummy smile is common, the lower third of the face looks unharmoniously small, and the chin is beveled;
  • Open bite – when the jaws close, there is no contact between the upper and lower teeth. This type of bite causes significant impairment of masticatory and speech functions; facial muscles are usually overstretched and the lower face is elongated;
  • Cross bite – asymmetry of the jaws vertically; when closing, there is an intersection of the dental rows. Developed when one of the jaws is underdeveloped, and results in a noticeable asymmetry of the face.

The above types of malocclusions can be complemented by dystopia, a bite disorder in which one or more teeth are positioned incorrectly, not in their proper places.


All types of bite disorders cause a set of problems, both dental and more general:

  • the development of tooth decay and gingivitis — caused by ineffective oral hygiene. Even with regular and thorough brushing, bite anomalies leave hard-to-reach areas where food debris accumulates and bacteria multiply;
  • accelerated tooth decay, abrasion and chipping of enamel — caused by an uneven load on the teeth;
  • gastrointestinal disorders caused by inadequate chewing of food;
  • respiratory system disorders due to improper development of the maxillary system;
  • TMJ problems that cause pain in the head, ears, back, facial muscle strain, bruxism, postural disorders, etc;
  • facial aesthetics disorders: asymmetry, nasolabial folds, sagging chin and neck skin — these and other defects caused by improper bite can be effectively corrected only with the coordinated work of a cosmetologist and orthodonotist.


Orthodontic and surgical types of bite correction depend on the nature of the pathology. In skeletal anomalies, surgical intervention is necessary to correct the bite. In other cases, with dental anomalies, only orthodontic treatment is sufficient. At our dental clinic Affordable Dentistry of South Florida, we use aligners, invisible mouth guards that can correct all types of dental bites in people of all ages. The technology allows you to achieve a guaranteed result in a predetermined period of time, and even before the treatment begins you will see what your smile will look like after the correction of your bite.

Call us at 954-534-9181 and make an appointment.


02 august 2022, 11:39

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